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Monographs

Reliable measurement diagramMonographs deal with various aspects of metrology in the different fields of physical measurement and form the texts for our physical metrology training courses

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Monographs can be ordered as PDF's or hardcopy format via our Online Shop.

Monograph 1 Uncertainty in Measurement: The ISO Guide (2005, eleventh edition)

Robin E. Bentley, 108 pp
The monograph presents a user-friendly discussion of measurement uncertainty and its calculation using the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. It gives a broad perspective of the topic that would be generally applicable to all fields of metrology. To this was added much practical advice on the application of the Guide to real situations, and at all times the intention was to help the reader keep things in perspective and to develop a healthy attitude to error management. Equally, it will give the reader a 'feel' for the concepts and workings of the Guide - often referred to as the GUM.

Monograph 2 Statistical Background to the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (2016, fourth edition)

Robert B. Frenkel, 278 pp
The monograph is an attempt to provide reasons, in intuitive terms wherever possible, for the recommendations in the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This involves an in-depth discussion of the statistics that underpin the Guide - the powerful subject of statistics-in-metrology.

Monograph 3 Traceable Measurements (2005, fourth edition)

Glenda Sandars, 26 pp
The monograph gives an overview of the measurement chain that is used to ensure geographic and temporal standardisation of measurements. It details traceability from SI units through the various levels of physical standards to the working instruments used in measurement and testing procedures. Finally, the monograph explains why traceable measurements are the foundation of quality, conformance and international trade.

Monograph 4 The Calibration of Weights and Balances (2010, third edition)

Edwin C. Morris and Kitty M. K. Fen, 166 pp
The monograph details mass calibration, by direct comparison and by the use of weighing schemes, and the calibration of electronic and single-pan, two-knife-edge balances. Included are the necessary tests, examples of tests and sample calibration reports. The calculation of uncertainties in accordance with the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is fully described for each case.

Click here for details of the amendments which have been made to each edition and revision of Monograph 4.

Monograph 5 Thermocouples in Temperature Measurement (2004, third edition)

Robin E. Bentley, 173 pp
The monograph begins with an explanation of how emf is generated in thermocouples and, as a logical consequence, formulates techniques of use and calibration, especially the need for thermoelectric scanning. Extensive detail is given on the properties and thermoelectric behaviour of the common thermocouple materials and much attention is given to errors that affect their use. Also discussed is the application of the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement to uncertainties, the difficulties of gas temperature measurement in ovens and furnaces and multi-site measurement (assessment of temperature distributions within 'uniform-temperature' enclosures, such as ovens, and the use of AS 2853).

Monograph 6 The Measurement of Electrical Quantities (2009, third edition)

Ilya Budovsky et al, 140 pp
The monograph describes principles and techniques of the measurement of electrical quantities (direct and alternating voltage, direct and alternating current, resistance and high voltage), particularly with the use of digital multimeters (DMMs) and calibrators. The emphasis is on the techniques of reliable measurement and this necessarily involves a detailed discussion of the systematic errors that affect the measurement of electrical quantities as well as the principles of operation of DMMs and calibrators. Also discussed is the calibration of DMMs and the calculation of the uncertainty of calibration. The monograph gives an introduction to the primary standards of electrical quantities.

Monograph 7 Pressure Measurement (2008, fourth edition)

Noel Bignell et al, 228 pp
The measurement of pressure from vacuum to the high-pressure region is discussed as are the various types of instrument that are used. Some of the topics covered are barometry, manometry and liquid columns, hydraulic and gas-operated piston gauges, pressure transducers and calibrators, and differential and gauge pressure. Traceability and the calculation of uncertainty are also covered.

Click here for details of the amendments made to Monograph 7.

Monograph 8 Humidity and its Measurement (2006, first edition)

Edwin C. Morris, 28 pp
The concepts that underlie the measurement of humidity, the amount of water in gases, are explained, a review of humidity standards and generators is given and several practical instruments are described. Environmental chambers and some common problems are also discussed.

Monograph 9 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometry (2004, first edition)

Corinna Horrigan and Robin E. Bentley, 70 pp
The operation, calibration and usage of liquid-in-glass thermometers is discussed, including some unusual types (bomb calorimeters etc). Various effects, such as temporary depression, stiction and changes in immersion are described and methods for handling and controlling the resultant changes are given, as are methods for assessing and rectifying constructional faults. The calculation of uncertainty of calibration according to the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is included.

Monograph 10 Introduction to Radiometry (2008, first edition, second revision)

Jim Gardner et al, 194 pp
The monograph gives an overview of common radiometric measurement principles, techniques and equipment with an emphasis in raising awareness of the many pitfalls associated with the measurements and their traceability to SI units. The topics covered include radiometry and photometry basics, primary standards, ultra-violet radiometry, photometry, spectroradiometry and colorimetry. Selected examples of uncertainty calculations conforming to the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement are also provided.

Monograph 11 Platinum Resistance Thermometry (2004, first edition)

John Connolly and Robin Bentley, 124 pp
The design and characteristics of platinum resistance thermometers are described as are their operating principles and techniques for their measurement and calibration. Included are two examples of calculating uncertainty using the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (calibrations of a thermometer and block calibrator), and a description of enclosures used for calibration and details of the temperature scale, the ITS-90, are also given.

Monograph 12 Radiation Thermometry (2004, first edition)

Mark Ballico, 44 pp
Non-contact temperature measurement based on the measurement of thermal radiation is described. The monograph outlines the necessary theoretical considerations and gives an appreciation of the dominant role played by emissivity, a knowledge of which is required for reliable temperature measurement. Techniques for minimising error and of calibration are also given.

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